Cochrane Database Syst Rev. The vagina and vulva have evoked strong reactions in societies throughout history, including negative perceptions and language, cultural taboos , and their use as symbols for female sexuality , spirituality, or regeneration of life. The vaginal microbiome is dominated by Lactobacillus species. The texture of the vaginal walls creates friction for the penis during sexual intercourse and stimulates it toward ejaculation , enabling fertilization. Some cultures believe that female genital mutilation is part of a girl's initiation into adulthood and that not performing it can disrupt social and political cohesion. Vaginal evisceration is a serious complication of a vaginal hysterectomy and occurs when the vaginal cuff ruptures , allowing the small intestine to protrude from the vagina. This often resolves after one year but may take longer.
Although research on the vagina is especially lacking for different animals, its location, structure and size is documented as varying among species. Sexuality and Gender in Modern American Sexology.
What is the clitoris?
Development, Democracy and Regional Cooperation. After giving birth, there is a phase of vaginal discharge called lochia that can vary significantly in the amount of loss and its duration but can go on for up to six weeks. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. The smooth muscular layer within the vagina has a weak contractive force that can create some pressure in the lumen of the vagina; much stronger contractive force, such as during childbirth, comes from muscles in the pelvic floor that are attached to the adventitia around the vagina. Diagram of the female human reproductive tract and ovaries.
Both types can help avert pregnancy by preventing semen from coming in contact with the vagina. Significant controversy surrounds female genital mutilation,   with the World Health Organization WHO and other health organizations campaigning against the procedures on behalf of human rights , stating that it is "a violation of the human rights of girls and women" and "reflects deep-rooted inequality between the sexes".